Whitepapers

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Out-of-Order Execution as a Cross-VM Side-Channel and Other Applications

In this paper, we introduce a novel side-channel which functions across virtual machines. The side-channel functions through the detection of out-of-order execution. We create a simple duplex channel as well as a broadcast channel. We discuss possible adversaries for the side-channel and propose further work to make the channel more secure, efficient and applicable in realistic scenarios. In addition, we consider seven possible malicious applications of this channel: theft of encryption keys, program identification, environmental keying, malicious triggers, determining virtual machine co-location, malicious data injection, and covert channels.

 

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